Architecture of Android

Android architecture is categorized different software components arranges in a stack. Different software components are

1. Linux Kernel

2. Native Libraries

3. Android Runtime

4. Application Framework

5. Applications

Linux kernel:

Linux Kernel

1. It is a bottom layer of android software stack.

2. Linux Kernel provides a level of abstraction between hardware like camera, Bluetooth, keyboard, USB etc and upper layers like web kit, SQLite etc  of the android software stack.

3.The Linux Kernel was developed  by Linus Torvalds in 1991.

4.Android is built on top of  Linux 2.6 Kernel that provides primitive multitasking.

5. Process management, Memory management and device management  are the basic system functionality provided by Linux Kernel.

Native libraries:

1. All these libraries are written in c,c++.

2. Native libraries are based on  top layer of  Linux Kernel such as SQLite, Webkit, SSL (Source Socket layer), Open GL (open Graphic libraries) etc.


Used to access data published by content providers and includes SQLite database management classes.


Webkit library is responsible for browser  support.

Surface Manager:

It manages 2D and 3D graphic layers for multiple applications.

Media Framework:

This library supports playback and supports and recording of many popular audio and video format also image files including JPG and PNG.

Open GL/ES:(open Graphic Libraries)

It is a java interface that rendering API to the open GL 3D graphics.

SSL(Secure Socket Layer):

It provides internet security.


It is a web browser engine that powers both  android browser and an embed able web view.

Free Type :

It is used to render bitmap and fonts.

Android Run time:

Android Runtime

It is the second layer from bottom of android architecture that provides core libraries and DVM (Da lvik Virtual Machine).

Core libraries and DVM are responsible to run the android application.

DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine) is like JVM (Java Virtual Machine) that is only optimized for mobile devices.

Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable(.dex) format which consumes less memory and fast performance.

Application Framework:

Application Framework

 It is 2nd top most component in android architecture or android software stack.

It includes Android API’s like package manager, content provider, locations etc.

All android applications are directly interact with application framework.

It provides many classes and interface for application development.

Activity Manager:

It manages complete application lifecycle.

Window Manager:

It is a system service, that responsible for controlling the z-ordered list of windows, which windows are visible, and how they are laid out on screen.

Content Provider:

It is used to control applications that manages publish and share data between two applications.

View System:

It is used to build an application including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons and more.

Package manager:

It provides methods for querying and manipulating installed packages and related permissions.      

Telephony manager:

It is used to manages all voice calls.

Resource manager: 

It is used to provide different types of resources like strings, color settings etc.

Location Manager:

It is used to access location services like GPS and Google map.

Notification Manager: 

It allows applications to display notifications to the user.


A set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using the Java programming language.

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