The Medieval India history begins with the Rashtrakutas & Imperial Cholas.
Deccan and Karnataka were under the rule of Rashtrakutas from 975 AD. Their mother tongue was Kannad and they setup their capital at Manyakhet. Pampa was a Great Kannad poet who wrote Vikramasena Vijaya & Adi Purana.
- Krishana 1:
- Krishana 3:
- Rashtrakuta's Administration:
Dantidurga was the founder of Rashtrakutas kingdom. He defeated Pariharas and annexed Malwa. He also defeated Chalukyas and annexed their regions.
He annexed Chalukyas of Vengi which are known as Eastern Chalukyas. He also built Monolithic Ellora temple Kailasha temple in the Dravidian Style.
He was a follower of Jainism and he ruled for around 64 years. His chief teacher was Jinasena who wrote Parshavabudaya. He also wrote 1st Kannnad book named as Kavirajmarga. He built the capital Malkhed (Manyakhet) to its zenith.
He was the last prominent Rashtrakuta ruler and after his death, Rashtrakutas power declined and Chalukyas of Kalyani took over their kingdom. He built the Krishaneshwara Temple at Rameshwaram.
They divided the entire empire into several provinces called Rashtras under the control of Rashtrapati. The rashtras were further divided into Districts called vishayas, governed by Vishayapatis. These districts were further divided into Bukti which consisted 50 to 70 villages and controlled by Bhogpatis. Each village had a headman who was helped by village elders who were known as Grama Mahajana or Grama Mahattara. Kosta – pala or Kotwal were responsible for maintaining law & order and Nav Gavundas or Desa Gramakutas were hereditary Revenue Officer.
In this era, Vaishnavism & Shaivism prominently flourished but people were allowed to follow Jainism and Buddhism or even Muslim religion. Rashtrakutas were tolerant to all religions.
Famous temple of this era: Kailash temple at Ellora, Krishaneshwara temple at Rameshwaram.
Famous Caves: Elephanta Caves at Mumbai
The time period from 900 to 1200 AD belongs to Cholas.
- Rajaraja 1 (Shaivist):
- Rajendra 1 (Shaivist):
- Culture & Religion:
He is the founder of the Chola dynasty and he setup his capital at Tanjore. He also built Durga temple at Tanjore.
He defeated Cheras (Trivendrum), Pandayas and annexed Northern Srilanka. He also conquered Maldives and Chalukya of Kalyani who won over Rashtrakutas. He build famous Rajeshwara/Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore in the Dravida Style in 1010 AD.
He defeated southern Srilanka and annexed the whole Srilanka. He captured till Bengal in north and Conquered Malay Peninsula & converted Bay of Bengal to Chola lake for trading purposes with China. He assumed the title of Gangaikonda chola. He also found new capital Gangaikondacholapuram at Kaveri & Built famous Gangaikondachola Temple in Dravida style.
The whole empire was divided into provinces known as Mandalams. Furthermore Mandalams were divided into Valanadu or Nathus. Local self-government in villages with mainly two assemblies Ur & Sabha or Mahasabha.
Ur were General assembly of the village whereas Mahasabha was Gathering of adult men in Brahamdeya villages called Agraharas.
Cast system was prevalent as Brahamanas & Kshatriyas enjoyed powers in this era. Shaivism & Vaishnavism flourished & a number of temples & Mathas (educational centres) were built. Shaivism saints were known as Nayanars & Vishnu saints as Alvars.
Famous temples of this era: Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur by Rajraja 1, Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram by Rajraja 2, Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram by Rajendra 1.
Dravida was the main style for building temples. 5 to 7 story building above Girbhagriha (Chief deity room) like Vimana Style. Gopurams (Lofty gates) and Mandap (pillars) with big hall for audiences & ceremonies. Ceremonies performed by Devadasis (Women dedicated to God) and one fine example of such is: Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram.