Slave Dynasty - Civil Services Preparation Online! UPSC & IAS Study Material

Slave Dynasty

by Devender

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The slave dynasty was also known as the Mamluk dynasty and it was a sum up of 3 small dynasties:

1 Qutubi Dynasty: From 1206 to 1211 by Qutubuddin Aibak

2 1st Ilbari Dynasty: From 1211 to 1246 by Iltutmish

3 2nd Ilbari Dynasty: From 1246 to 1290 by Balban

Slave Dynasty

  • Qutubuddin Aibak:
  • After the death of Ghori, Aibak declared his independence and set up his own rule in Indraprastha, near Delhi. He founded the Slave dynasty along with the Delhi sultanate. He terminated all his connections to the Ghori kingdom and assumed the title of Sultan by making Lahore his capital.

  • He made a charity of 1 lakh coins to Muslims which is why he is also known as Lakh Bakhsh by Muslim writers.
  • He patronized great scholar "Hasan Nizami" & started the construction of the famous Qutub Minar named after Sufi saint Khwaja–i–Qutubuddin-Bakthiyar.
  • The Minar was later completed by Iltutmish.
  • He died playing Chaugan (Horse polo) in 1210.

  • Iltutmish:
  • He ruled from 1211 to 1236. He was from the Ilbari tribe hence his dynasty is named as Ilbari dynasty. His elder brother sold him to Aibak. Aibak married his daughter to Iltutmish and made him "Iqtadar of Gwalior".

  • After the death of Aibak, Iltutmish defeated Aram Bakhsh (Son of Aibak) and became sultan in 1211.
  • He shifted the capital from Lahore to Delhi and completed the Qutub Minar at Delhi.
  • He also built the Ajmer Sharif mosque and introduced Arabic coinage silver taka (175 gm) coin in India which is the basis of the modern Indian Rupee. He started a new class of ruling elites of 40 powerful military leaders known as "the 40 nobles" or Chahalgani and during his reign, Mongols under Changez khan raided Central Asia.


  • Razia Sultana:
  • She ruled from 1236 to 1240. She was the daughter of Iltutmish and after his death, she took the throne. She appointed Abyssinian slave Yakuth as master of royal horses and also discarded female clothes. She held court uncovering her face.

    Altunia was the governor of Bhatinda who revolted against her and captured her as a prisoner. He later married her and Razia went back to reclaim her control over Delhi but got defeated and killed.


  • Balban:

He ruled from 1246 to 1287. He introduced severe Court discipline and started new customs like Prostration (Shijada & Paipos rule). He reduced the power of the nobility and heightened the stature of the sultan by asking nobles to kiss Sultan's feet to prove his supremacy over nobles.

To impress the nobles, he started the Persian festival of Navroj and he only spared the most loyal Nobles, killing others one way or another. He also established a separate military department "Diwan – i –Arz" to maintain law & order.



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