Chalukya of Badami, Pallavas, Pandyas - Civil Services Preparation Online! UPSC & IAS Study Material

Chalukya of Badami, Pallavas, Pandyas

by Devender

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In 600 AD, there were mainly 3 kingdoms in South India namely: Chalukya (Badami), Pallava (Kanchi), and Pandyas (Madurai). The primary language of all these kingdoms was Sanskrit. During this period there was a rise in the agrarian economy. There were no megaliths and trade was declining. This period is marked with the beginning of the construction of the stone temples of Shiva and Vishnu. Brahamanas were getting numerous grants and Jainism was confined to Maharashtra only.

Chalukyas of Badami

In northern Maharashtra, Satavahanas were succeeded by Vakatas (Brahamanas). These Vakatas were then succeeded by Chalukyas of Badami (Vatapi). Chalukyas claimed they are descendent from Moon/Manu/Brahma. They set up their capital at Badami (Vatapi) at Bijapur (Karnataka).

  • Pulakeshin 2 was the greatest ruler among Chalukyas
  • He defeated Harshas Army advancing in Deccan on the banks of Narmada
  • Aihole inscription by Ravikriti in Sanskrit
  • Architecture by Chalukyas:

They developed Deccan/Vesara style Temples and Papanatha & Virupaksha at Pattadakal (City of famous 10 temples).


Pallavas

In the eastern Peninsula, Satavahans was succeeded by Ikshvakus (Suryavansh) who are then succeeded by Pallavas. Pallavas were known as Creeper/Tondai/Robbers. They set their capital at Kanchipuram. They were in conflict with kadambas. Kadamabas was founded by Mayurasharman and their capital was at Vaijayanti.

  • Narasimhavarman was the greatest ruler among Pallavas
  • He defeated Pulakeshin 2 and occupied Vatapi which entitles him as Vatapikonda
  • He also founded the port city of Mahabalipuram which is now known as Mamallapuram.

  • Pallavas Dravidian Style Temples:
  • 7 Ratha temple (Mahabalipuram): Rock Cut
  • Shore Temple (Mahabalipuram): Freestanding
  • Vaikuntha Perumal (Mahabalipuram): Free standing
  • Kailashnath Temple (Kanchipuram): Freestanding

  • Conflict with Kalbhras:
  • Pallavas, Chalukyas & Kadambas were all Brahamanas and they followed it with Vedic sacrifices and making numerous land donations to Brahamanas. Kalbhras patronized Buddhism & Buddhist monasteries and they were against all this. They started a revolt against the grant of lands to Brahamanas to put an end to Brahamadeya's right to Brahamanas.


  • Rural Structure:
  • There were three types of villages namely: Ur, Sabha & Nagaram

  • Ur: Inhabited by peasants who held their land in common & village headman collected tax & paid on everyone’s behalf
  • Sabha: Brahamdeya or land granted to Brahamanas (Agrahara villages)
  • Nagaram Inhabited by merchants & traders

In the kingdom of Chalukyas, village affairs were managed by village elders known as "Mahajana".



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