Indus Valley Civilization - Civil Services Preparation Online! UPSC & IAS Study Material

Indus Valley Civilization

by Devender

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  • The time period of the Indus valley civilization was from 2900 to 1700 BC.
  • Thus, it is older than chalcolithic culture but still, it was far more developed compared to chalcolithic.
  • It was marked with the beginning of the bronze age civilization.

Indus Valley Civilization

  • Sights of Indus Valley civilization:
  • 1 Early or Pre Harappan:

  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan, Ghaggar)
  • Banawali (Hissar, Ghaggar)
  • Rakhigarhi (Hissar, Ghaggar)
  • Dholavira (Kutch)
  • 2 Mature or Harappan:

  • Harappa (Pakistan, Ravi)
  • Mohenjodaro (Pakistan, Indus)
  • Chanhudaro (Pakistan, Indus)
  • Sutkagendor (Pakistan)
  • Sukotada (Gujrat)
  • Lothal (Gujrat, Bhogava)
  • Kalibangan
  • Banawali
  • Rakhigarhi
  • Dholavira
  • 3 Late or Post Harappan:

  • Rakhigarhi
  • Dholavira
  • Bhagwanpura
  • Manda (Jammu)
  • Chandigarh, Shangol (Punjab)
  • Daulatpur, Mitthal (Haryana)
  • AlamgirpurHulas (West UP)

  • Developments in Indus Valley Civilization:
  • They formed citadel in cities for ruling class and brick houses below citadel in town for the common people and the road system they designed were off grid system with every road cutting at a perfect right angle to each other. Stone buildings are totally absent and people used to use brunt bricks.

    These people had an outstanding underground drainage system connecting every house and street. They used to cover it with bricks or stone slabs. They domesticated large no. of animals and even agriculture technology was well-developed. Indus people were the ones that firstly produced Cotton and this is why Greeks called it Sindon which is derived from Sindh.

    They were also the first ones to produce silver in the world. These people used to wear gold, silver & beads Jewellery and practiced boat making, seal making, Bronze smith, Weavers, etc. The Granaries & seals found at these sights resembles that these people used to carry trade but only through the barter system.

    There were no temples found at any Harappan site so it can be said that it was ruled by merchants and not priests. They used to worship Goddess Earth, Pipal Tree, Pashupati Mahadeva & Animals (Bull / Unicorn Rhino). They also introduced the art of writing from right to left but only in Pictographic style only which is yet to be deciphered.

    They have found the use of weights and bronze-made marked sticks for measurements. The people of the era were certainly experts in Potter’s wheel & pottery making and their greatest artistic creation was "Seals". They mostly used limestone for sculptures.


  • The decline of Indus Valley Civilization:
  • There are various theories that are believed for the decline of the Indus Valley civilization.

  • Natural disasters like earthquakes, floods, etc.
  • Land fertility had decreased
  • Epidemic Outbreak
  • The decline in trading and Invasion of Aryansported in Ashoka's occasions from Persia. There is bountiful proof of stone artisans mark like those at Persepolis (Persia)



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