India is the seventh-largest country in the world by area and the second-largest country in the world by population. India is the most populous democracy in the world.
India Position & Population Statistics
- India lies in South Asia - It is North of the Equator
- India has the 2nd largest arable land in the world after the US
- Latitude - (8°4' – 37°6') N
- Latitude - (8°4' – 37°6') N
- India's population is 17.6% of the world population
- Area - 3.28 million sq. km (2.4 % of world), 7th largest in the world
- Southernmost Point - Indira Point (6°45')N
- St. meridian - Allahabad (82°3')E
- Kashmir to Kanyakumari - 3214 km
- Rann of Kutch to Arunachal Pradesh - 2933 km
- Mainland Coastline - 6100 km
- (Mainland + A & N + Lakshadweep) coastline - 7517 km
- Population - China > India > US > Indonesia > Brazil > Pakistan
- Area - Russia > Canada > US > China > Brazil > Australia > India
- Religion - Christian > Muslims > Hindus > Chinese folks > Buddhists
- Language - Mandarin Chinese > English > Hindi > Spanish > Russian > Arabic
- Most populous state - UP
- Least Populous State - Sikkim
- Most literate state - Kerala
- Least literate state - Bihar
- Largest Area - Rajasthan
- Smallest area - Goa
- Male literacy - 82.14%
- Female literacy - 65.46%
- Male Population - 51.54%
- Female Population - 48.46%
- Max Sex ratio - Kerala
- Min Sex Ratio - Haryana
- Sex Ratio
- Child Sex Ratio
- Density of Population
- Most Populous UT - Delhi
- Least Populous UT - Lakshadweep
- Highest Growth of Population - Meghalaya
- Least Growth of Population - Nagaland (negative growth)
- North Indian Plains, deltas, and Coastal Plains have climates suitable for agriculture and fertile plains hence have a higher proportion of the population
- Mountainous and forested regions of southern and central Indian States, Himalayan states, and some of the north-eastern states are less populated
- Development of irrigation (Rajasthan), availability of mineral and energy resources (Jharkhand), and development of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in a moderate to the high proportion of the population
- Traditional settled agriculture and early human settlement has resulted in a large population in river plains and coastal areas of India
- North Plains have a large population due to the development of transport and better agricultural development
- Due to industrial development and urbanization, Metro cities of India have a high concentration of population
- A large number of rural-urban migrants come to these towns
- 1981 - till present
- the decline in the crude birth rate
- increase in the mean age at marriage
- improvement in female literacy and empowerment
- better scientific developments and access to the common man
- Uneven Migration
- Urbanization problem
- Regional disparities
- Increase in crime rate
- Environmental Degradation
- Adverse effects on savings
- Unproductive investment
- The slow growth of Per Capita Income
- Underutilization of labor
- Growing pressure on land
- Adverse effect on the quality of the population
- Adverse social impact
- Geographical isolation - They live in cloistered, exclusive, remote, and inhospitable areas such as hills & forests
- Backwardness - Their livelihood is based on primitive agriculture with a low level of technology leading to poverty
- The shyness of contact - They have a marginal degree of contact with other cultures and people
- Dependence on forests
- Excessive discrimination
- The problem of land Alienation
- Bonded labour
- Malnutrition and other health-related problems
India's population is 1.21 billion which is 17.5% of the world. The male population of India is 623.7 million while Female is 586.5 million.
India has a literacy of 74.04%. Male literacy is 82.14% while Female literacy is 65.46%. Kerala has the highest literacy among all the states while Bihar has the least.
Kerala has the highest Female literacy while Rajasthan has the least female literacy. Whereas Lakshadweep has the highest male literacy and Bihar has the lowest male literacy.
India's sex ratio is 940 which is the highest since 1971. Among states, Kerala has the highest sex ratio with 1084 while Haryana has the lowest with 877. Among UT, Puducherry has the highest with 1038, and Dadra and Nagar have the lowest with 775.
India's Child Sex Ratio is 914 and Mizoram has the highest Child Sex Ratio with 971 while Haryana has the lowest with 830.
India's density of population is 382 per sq. km. It is highest in Delhi and after that Bihar > WB > UP whereas it is lowest in A & N and after that Arunachal Pradesh.
Factors of Population Distribution in India
Physical factors such as Climate, Terrain, and Availability of water
Socio-economic and historical factors
Industrialization and urbanization
Phases of Growth of Indian Population
This phase is referred to as a period of the stationary phase of the growth of India's population. It even recorded a negative growth rate as both the birth rate and death rate were high due to poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large, & inefficient distribution system of food.
This phase is referred to as the period of steady population growth. The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to a higher growth rate than the previous phase. There was an overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country with better transport and communication system that also improved the distribution system.
It is referred to as the period of population explosion in India. The death rate in the country fell down but the birth rate increased. The average annual growth rate was as high as 2.2 %. It was because of better living conditions, scientific developments, and increased international immigration from Tibet, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan.
During the last few decades, the growth rate of the country has been slowing down gradually. It became possible due to:
Problems due to Higher Population in India
Impact of population growth on the Indian Economy
Tribes of India
The Indian government officially recognized the "Scheduled Tribes" in the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The scheduled tribes are often grouped together with scheduled castes in the category "Scheduled Castes and Tribes". These are eligible for certain constitutional benefits and perks.
Scheduled Tribes are defined in the Constitution of India, Article 366 (25) as "such tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to the Scheduled Tribes (STs) for the purposes of this Constitution".
|Jarawa, Onge, Sentinelese||Andaman|
|Shorn Pens, Holchu||Nicobar|
|Palaeo Mongoloids||Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur|
|Tibeto -Mongoloids||Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh|
|Mundas, Santhals, Oraons||Chhotanagpur Plateau|
|Gonds, Kondhs||Central Vindhyachal and Deccan Plateau|
|Gaddi, Kinner, Phangwal, Lahuli||Himachal Pradesh|
|Jaunsari, Bhotia, Raji, Buxa, Tharu||Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh|
|Anal, Chiru, Konkanas, Kollam||Maharashtra|
|Mala and Savara tribes||West Bengal|
|Bhuiya tribe||Madhya Pradesh|
|Banjaras, Moghias and Sathiyas||Rajasthan|
|Bhil and Maldhari (Gir lions)||Gujarat|
|Oraon, Munda, Chero, Parchaiya, Santhal, Asuras ||Bihar|
|Bhuiya, Baiga, Dharua, Gaaro, Ho, Koli, Lodha||Orissa|
|Oorali, Sholagar, Irular and Badaga||Tamil Nadu|
|Hakki-Pikki, Korgas, Kurubas, Soliga||Karnataka|
|Kadars, Irulars, Paniyans, Korgas, ooralis||Kerala|
Common Features of Tribes
These tribes have distinctive cultures, languages, and religions. They stay isolated from the world.
They are generally illiterate & unaware of the world's progress.
Problems of Tribal People
There are a lot of problems that are very common with the tribal people. The biggest one being:
Large development projects undertaken by the government encroach upon their land. Large scale displacements, unsatisfactory compensation, and rehabilitation are common for these people which further leads to more backwardness and seclusion. They lack a common voice to bargain collectively because of their diversity. The other problems are: